Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS). AD CS role services install on a number
of operating systems, including Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, and
Windows 2000 Server. Naturally the fullest implementation of AD CS is only possible
on Windows Server 2008. You can deploy AD CS as a single standalone certification
authority (CA), or you can deploy multiple servers and configure them as root, policy, and
certificate issuing authorities. You also have a variety of Online Responder configuration
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS). This is the role in the Windows Server
2008 operating system that stores information about users, computers, and other
resources on a network. AD DS is also used for directory-enabled applications such as
Microsoft Exchange Server. AD also stores all information required for Group Policy.
Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS). AD FS employs technology that
allows users over the life of a single online session to securely share digital identity
and entitlement rights, or ‘‘claims,’’ across security and enterprise boundaries. This
role—introduced and supported on all operating systems since Microsoft Windows
Server 2003 R2— provides Web Single Sign-On (SSO) services to allow a user to access
multiple, related Web applications.
Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). This service is ideal if you
are required to support directory-enabled applications. AD LDS is a Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol (LDAP) compliant directory service.
Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS). This service augments
an organization’s security strategy by protecting information through persistent usage
policies. The key to the service is that the right management policies are bound to the
information no matter where it resides or to where it is moved. AD RMS is used to lock
down documents, spreadsheets, e-mail, and so on from being infiltrated or ending up in
the wrong hands. AD RMS, for example, prevents e-mails from being accidentally forwarded
to the wrong people.
The Application Server role. This role supports the deployment and operation of custom
business applications that are built with Microsoft .NET Framework. The Application
Server role lets you choose services for applications that require COM+, Message Queuing,
Web services, and Distributed Coordinated Transactions.
DHCP and DNS. These two roles install these two critical network service services
required for every network. They support Active Directory integration and support IPv6.
Fax Server role. The fax server lets you set up a service to send and receive faxes over
your network. The role creates a fax server and installs the Fax Service Manager and the
Fax service on the server.

File Server role. This role lets you set up all the bits, bells, and whistles that come with a
Windows file server. This role also lets you install Share and Storage Management, the Distributed
File System (DFS), the File Server Resource Manager application for managing file
servers, Services for Network File System (NFS), Windows File Services, which include
stuff like the File Replication Service (FRS), and so on.
Network Policy and Access Services. This provides the following network connectivity
solutions: Network Access Protection (NAP), the client health policy creation, enforcement,
and remediation technology; secure wireless and wired access (802.1X), wireless
access points, remote access solutions, virtual private network (VPN) services, Radius, and
Print Management role. The print services provide a single interface that you use to
manage multiple printers and print servers on your network.
Terminal Services role. This service provides technologies that enable users to access
Windows-based programs that are installed on a terminal server. Users can execute applications
remotely (they still run on the remote server) or they can access the full Windows
desktop on the target server.
Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI). UDDI Services provide
capabilities for sharing information about Web services. UDDI is used on the intranet,
between entities participating on an extranet, or on the Internet.
Web Server role. This role provides IIS 7.0, the Web server, ASP.NET, and the Windows
Communication Foundation (WCF).

Windows Deployment Services.
These services are used for deployment of new computers
in medium to large organizations.